flag of constantinople

[72], Scene of a battle from the 13th-century Madrid Skylitzes, Example of a military banner appearing in the Madrid Skylitzes, Historical re-enactors of Byzantine soldiers, with flags inspired by the Madrid Skylitzes, According to the Stratēgikon, the colours of the standard reflected a unit's hierarchical subordination: the banda of the regiments of the same brigade (moira, droungos) had a field of the same colour, distinguished by a distinctive device, and the regiments of the same division (meros or tourma) of the army had the same colour on their streamers. συμπίλημα, sympilēma), with the letters of the owner's personal or family name arranged around a cross. Greek Orthodox Church and Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople flag textile cloth fabric waving on the top sunrise mist fog. Archived. Flag of the Palaiologoi as shown in the Book of all Kingdoms The Book of all Kingdoms, a 14th-century book written by a Castillian Friar, lists this as the "Flag of the Empire of Constantinople" (The Byzantine Empire). One of the most sophisticated buildings in Constantinople was the formidable complex of defenses. [79] Among them were the imperial phlamoula of gold and gold-embroidered silk, and the insignia collectively known as "sceptres" (σκῆπτρα, skēptra), which were usually symbolical objects on top of a staff. [28], Within the Byzantine world, the eagle was also used by the semi-autonomous Despots of the Morea, who were younger imperial princes, and by the Gattilusi of Lesbos, who were Palaiologan relatives and vassals. The history of Byzantine Empire starts with the foundation of Constantinople in many sources. [61] On the other hand, the adaptation of Byzantine forms to Western uses can be seen with the seal of Andreas Palaiologos, which includes the imperial double-headed eagle on an escutcheon, a practice never used in Byzantium. In addition, the use of pieces of the True Cross is often mentioned in military parades. Another flag of the Byzantine Empire is a combination of the St. George cross (which is a red cross on a white field) and the arms of the Palaiologos family (yellow crosses on a red field). The great Bulgar Khans Krum (r. 802-814 CE) and Symeon (r. 893-927 CE) both attempted to attack the Byzantine capital, as did the Rus (descendants of Vikings based around Kiev) in 860 CE, 941 CE, and 1043 CE, but all failed. [80][81] Further insignia of this type included the eutychia or ptychia (εὐτυχία or πτυχία), which probably bore some representation of Victory. Flag The flags and symbols in occasions have accepted modernization and evolution.A fine example of modernity and evolution it is how the Byzantine Eagle evolve on from Charalampos of Thessaloniki and even gave a meaning to our times. [58], The frequent use of the star and crescent moon symbol, which appears on coins, military insignia and, perhaps, as a sometime municipal emblem of the imperial city, appears to be connected to the cult of Hecate Lampadephoros ("light-bearer") in Hellenistic-era Byzantium. Fall of Constantinople, (May 29, 1453), conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire.The dwindling Byzantine Empire came to an end when the Ottomans breached Constantinople’s ancient land wall after besieging the city for 55 days. — Flag of the Byzantine and Greek Orthodox Church. The symbol was also adopted by other Byzantine states, like the Gattilusi who ruled Lesbos after 1355, or the Latin lords of Rhodes Vignolo dei Vignoli and Foulques de Villaret. Svoronos himself proposed three alternate readings by incorporating the symbol of the cross into the motto: Σταυρὲ βασιλέως βασιλέων βασιλεῖ βοήθει ("Cross of the King of Kings aid the emperor"), Σταυρὲ βασιλέως βασιλέων βασιλευούσῃ βοήθει Staurè basileùs basiléon basileuoúse boéthei ("Cross of the King of Kings aid the ruling city [Constantinople]"), and Σταυρὲ βασιλέως βασιλέων βασιλεύων βασίλευε Staurè basileùs basiléon basileúon basíleue ("Cross of the King of Kings, rule in reigning"), while the Greek heraldist G. Tipaldos rejected Svoronos' reading and suggested that they represented a repetition of the motto Σταυρέ, βοήθει Staurè, boéthei ("Cross, Come to Our Aid"). Thus, it is not surprising that the flag was in use by the Russian Czars and the Greek Orthodox Church. Single-headed eagles are also attested in Trapezuntine coins, and a 1421 source depicts the Trapezuntine flag as yellow with a red single-headed eagle. [43][44], As an insigne, the cross was already in frequent use in Byzantium since Late Antiquity. Unlike the Western feudal lords, Byzantine aristocratic families did not, as far as is known, use specific symbols to designate themselves and their followers. There was a myth telling a story about a giant eagle (more likely with two heads) that was retributive of injustice. [5] A native Byzantine heraldry began to appear in the middle and lower rungs of aristocratic families in the 14th century, coinciding with the decline of imperial authority and with the fragmentation of political power under the late Palaiologan emperors. The official Byzantine Flag, the Double-headed Eagle and other symbols and emblems of Constantinople and the Empire are in use to date from variety of organizations, companies, individuals and even states. [17] Thus, in the late 12th and throughout the 13th century, the eagle was used in northern Syria and Upper Mesopotamia: the Artuqid sultans of Amida used it as their insigne, the coins of the Zengid dynasty sported it, and Saladin and the Seljuq sultan Kayqubad I likewise used it as a decorative motif in their buildings.    Search, Constantinople 1350)[55], Byzantine flag as shown on some portolan charts[56], Bronze denaro of Domenico Gattilusio, lord of Lesbos in 1455–1458, with a large "D" on the obverse, and the tetragrammatic cross on the reverse, Arms of William IX Palaiologos, Marquess of Montferrat in 1494–1518, Arms of the House of Gonzaga as Dukes of Mantua after 1575. [27] The representation of the eagle on a shield is an adaptation to Western heraldic practice, however; the Byzantines never used it in this manner for themselves, although they employed it in a Western context, e.g. Language [14][15] Lambros suggested that it was adopted from Hittite rock-carvings,[13] while A. Soloviev argued in favour of a late adoption around 1288, as a talisman against the first Ottoman successes in Anatolia, as a symbolic gesture reaffirming Byzantine rule over both European and Asian territories. [63][64] Constantine the Great (r. 306–337) inserted the Chi-Rho emblem in Roman military standards, resulting in the so-called labarum. Flag size is 5 x 3 Feet ( 100 x 150 cm ) and have 2 D-rings on the left for Hanging on Flag pole or on the wall. 4 comments. [75] In the 10th century, the cross became a more prominent symbol, and was often used as a finial instead of a spear point. 711–713). [76][77], In the late Byzantine period, pseudo-Kodinos records the use of the Palaiologan "tetragrammatic cross" (see above) on the imperial ensign (Greek: βασιλικόν φλάμουλον, basilikon phlamoulon) borne by Byzantine naval vessels, while the navy's commander, the megas doux, displayed an image of the emperor on horseback. 52. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. In addition, the use of the draco, adopted from the Dacians, was widespread among cavalry and auxiliary units. The Byzantine Imperial flag is yellow with a black crowned double-headed eagle. — Byzantine Standard — Double-headed Eagle. It was also adopted in Serbia, with slight changes.The interpretation of the emblem's symbolism hinges on the identification of the four devices either as letters or as firesteels, a dispute where even contemporary sources are inconsistent. Constantinople had been an imperial capital since its consecration in 330 under Roman Emperor Constantine the Great.In the following eleven centuries, the city had been besieged many times but was captured only once: during the Fourth Crusade in 1204. The double-headed eagle existed also as a flag of the Empire in the late centuries but mostly as an Imperial emblem. The towers, domes and palaces were enclosed by the complex. Since the 6th century, crosses with quartered letters are known, especially from coinage, forming the acronyms of various invocations, e.g. The flags and symbols in occasions have accepted modernization and evolution. The Emperor Constantine was regarded as an ancestor by the Byzantines.He was infact a ruler of Roman … — Emblem of the Palaiologos Dynasty (1400s) — Έμβλημα της δυναστείας των Παλαιολόγων — The double headed eagle with the sympilema (dynastic cypher) of the Palaiologoi in the center. [82][83], A further group, collectively known as skeuē (σκεύη), is mentioned in the De Ceremoniis, mostly old military standards handed down through the ages. [87] The dibellion's nature has been debated, but its name – most likely a mixed Greek-Latin compound meaning "double velum" – apparently describes a forked pennon, evidently of Western European origin. [23] The only occasion the double-headed eagle appears on a flag is on the ship that bore Emperor John VIII Palaiologos to the Council of Florence, as mentioned by Sphrantzes and confirmed by its depiction in the Filarete Doors of St. Peter's Basilica. Byzantine Empire Map At Its Height, Timeline, Over Time. These were on the same pattern but of larger size, and possibly with more streamers (the Stratēgikon depicts flags with two to eight streamers). [6], The single-headed Roman imperial eagle continued to be used in Byzantium, although far more rarely. Cathedral of Learning, University of Pittsburgh, "Other Byzantine flags shown in the "Book of All Kingdoms" (14th century)", Guillem Soler's portolan chart of c. 1380, "Présence de l'aigle bicéphale en Trebizonde et dans la principauté grecque de Théodoro en Crimée (XIVe-XVe siècles)", "Zum Thema der Darstellung des zweiköpfigen Adlers bei den Byzantinern", Tetragrammkreuz (article on the tetragrammic cross), Heraldry In Byzantium & The Vlasto Family, Spain (Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Byzantine_flags_and_insignia&oldid=1000210623, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with German-language sources (de), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 03:29. [42], The tetragrammatic cross appears with great frequency in the 14th and 15th centuries: it appears on Byzantine coins during the joint rule of Andronikos II Palaiologos and his son Michael IX Palaiologos, on several Western portolans to designate Constantinople and other Byzantine cities, above one of the windows of the Palace of the Porphyrogenitus, and is described by pseudo-Kodinos as "the customary imperial banner" (basilikon phlamoulon). The flag colors are intensive and UV-resistant. Articles Constantinople Roman Empire Map Flag Language Anthem Today ☰ Articles Today. Far more common, both in seals and in decorations, was the use of cyphers or monograms (sing. σημεῖον, sēmeion) were used in official occasions and for military purposes, such as banners or shields displaying various motifs such as the cross or the labarum. ). During the Byzantine Roman Empire 324-1453 there is a variety of imperial, state and navy flags, symbols and emblems in use always with the common elements of the cross and the double-headed eagle.The cross was the official flag of the Byzantine state. [1] Various large aristocratic families did employ certain symbols to identify themselves;[1] the use of the cross, and of icons of Christ, the Theotokos and various saints is also attested on seals of officials, but these were often personal rather than family emblems. Beautiful. Byzantine Empire Map. The aquila fell out of use with the breaking up of the old legions, the imago was abandoned with the adoption of Christianity, and only the vexillum and the draco are still occasionally attested in the 5th century and beyond. Souvenir Fridge Magnet Brand new photo quality picture on acrylic fridge magnet. The Byzantine Empire was one of the most interesting, unique and mysterious civilizations in world history. [26] Likewise, in Western armorials from the 15th century, the golden double-headed eagle on a red shield is given as the arms of the "Empire of the East" or "of Constantinople", or as emblem of members of the imperial family. The double-headed eagle was the symbol of the Palaiologos, the last Greek-speaking "Roman" dynasty to rule from Constantinople. Fictional. — Flag of the "Empire of Constantinople" as described at Conoscimiento de todos los reynos (14th Century). The attacking Ottoman army, which significantly outnumbered Constantinople's defenders, was commanded by the 21-year-old Sultan Mehmed II (later called "the Conqueror"), while the Byzantine army was led by Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos.After conquering the city, Mehmed II made Constantinople the new Ottoman capital, replacing Adrianople.. the Byzantine Empire that were connected to Constantinople. [66][67] The pennons were used for decorative purposes on lances, but the Stratēgikon recommends removing them before battle. [65], In the late 6th-century Stratēgikon attributed to Emperor Maurice, two kinds of military flags appear: the triangular pennon or phlamoulon (φλάμουλον, from Latin: flammula, "little flame"), and the larger bandon (βάνδον, from Latin and ultimately Germanic bandum). The standards were not only used for distinguishing units, but also as rallying points and for conveying signals to the other formations. In addition, the Stratēgikon prescribes a separate standard for the baggage train (touldon) of each moira. [35] Likewise, the small Byzantine Principality of Theodoro in the Crimea, whose rulers conducted marriage alliances with both the Palaiologoi and the Grand Komnenoi, also used the double-headed eagle in the 15th century. Today both cross and double-headed eagle accepted as official state flags of the Byzantine Empire, equally. Facts about Constantinople 8: the architectural designs. This Constantinople, circa A flag is wind- and weather-resistant and highly durable. The crosses on top of the crowns means science, knowledge, space exploration in all directions and general preservation of the arts, planet, humans and animals. [78], From the 6th century until the end of the empire, the Byzantines also used a number of other insignia. The eagle holds a romfea at the right and a sphere (world) at the left, symbolizing the secular and spiritual character of the Empire, while the heads of the eagle look at right and left symbolizing the Imperial dominion from East to West. Thus "eagle-bearers" (ὀρνιθόβορας), descendants of the aquilifers of the Roman legions, are still attested in the 6th century military manual known as the Strategikon of Maurice, although it is unknown whether the standards they carried bore any resemblance to the legionary aquilae. [11][12] The date of its adoption by the Byzantines has been hotly debated by scholars. [20], The Palaiologan emperors used the double-headed eagle as a symbol of the senior members of the imperial family. Along with the double-headed eagle, the tetragrammatic cross was also adopted as part of their family coat of arms by the cadet line of the Palaiologos dynasty ruling in Montferrat. These were always preceded by the skouterios bearing the dibellion (διβέλλιον), the emperor's personal ensign, along with the imperial shield (skouterion), and were followed by the banners of the Despots and other commanders, with the banners of the dēmarchoi (the heads of Constantinople's quarters) bringing up the rear. It was placed on the walls of Galata, apparently as a sign of the Byzantine emperor's—largely theoretical—suzerainty over the Genoese colony. [38], The double-headed eagle with the Palaiologos family monogram (ΠΑΛΓ), from Demetrios Palaiologos' personal bible. save. A number of them, the so-called "Roman sceptres" (ῥωμαϊκὰ σκῆπτρα, rhōmaïka skēptra) resembled to old vexilla, featuring a hanging cloth (βῆλον, vēlon, from Latin velum). The flag of the Patriarchate of Constantinople is white with deep red - on the face, in a red circle with gold outlines, a double-headed eagle, with a crown on each head, and a crown over both, and the abbreviation "ΟΙΚ" and "Π" for Οἰκουμενικὸν Πατριαρχεῖον (Oecumenical Patriarchate), and in the right claw of the eagle, a cross, and in the left, an orb with a cross on its top. [54][52], Relief with the tetragrammatic cross as imperial arms, in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum, Early 14th-century depiction of Constantinople during the 1204 siege by the Fourth Crusade, Attributed arms of the Latin Empire from the reign of Philip I, who held the title of Latin Emperor of Constantinople from 1273–1283, Billon tornese coin from the joint reign of John V Palaiologos and John VI Kantakouzenos (1347–1353), The tetragrammatic cross emblem of the Palaiologos dynasty, from the 15th-century Harley 6163 manuscript, Imperial banner of the Palaiologos dynasty, as recorded by pseudo-Kodinos and one of the Byzantine flags depicted in the Castilian Conosçimiento de todos los reynos (ca. At the time, Mistra, a fortified town also called Sparta or Lacedaemon due to its proximity to the ancient city,was a center of arts and culture rivalling Constantinople. [24][25] According to a handful of surviving examples, such as the supposed "Flag of Andronikos II Palaiologos" in the Vatopedi Monastery, or a frontispiece of a Bible belonging to Demetrios Palaiologos, the Byzantine double-headed eagle was golden on a red background. Data Proportions: 1" x 1" Date Used: 1261-1460 They were the laboura (λάβουρα), probably a form of the labarum; the kampēdiktouria (καμπηδικτούρια), descendants of the batons of the late Roman drill-masters or campiductores; the signa (σίγνα, "insignia"); the drakontia (δρακόντια) and the banda. [62], The Late Roman army in the late 3rd century continued to use the insignia usual to the Roman legions: the eagle-tipped aquila, the square vexillum, and the imago (the bust of the emperor on a pole). quartered "X"s for Σταυρὲ Χριστοῦ χάριν χριστιανούς χάριζε Staurè Christou chárin christianoús chárize ("Cross of Christ bestow grace on the Christians") or the letters ϹΒΡΔ for Σταυρὲ σου βοήθει Ρωμανόν δεσπότην Staurè sou boíthei Romanón despótin ("Thy Cross aid the Lord Romanos"). quartered "X"s for Σταυρὲ Χριστοῦ χάριν χριστιανούς χάριζε Staurè Christou chárin christianoús chárize ("Cross of Christ bestow grace on the Christians").    Video Library Byzantine Empire Flag of Constantinople T-Shirt 5.0 out of 5 stars 1 rating. Sort by. Each moira and meros also had their own flag, as well as the army's commanding general (stratēgos). It may have resulted from modifications to the draco or the vexillum, but it appears in its final form in the Stratēgikon, composed of a square or rectangular field with streamers attached. The same, it is also the flag of the Church, to date the double-headed eagle flying all over the churches and monasteries in Greece and still Koine Greek are spoken in liturgy, this is the reason the majority of the population connect more frequently this symbol to the Empire. [26][39], Michael VIII Palaiologos standing on a suppedion decorated with single-headed eagles, John VI Kantakouzenos standing on a suppedion decorated with gold-embroidered double-headed eagles, Manuel II Palaiologos with his family. Perhaps a symbol of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople itself. [51], The interpretation of the emblem's symbolism hinges on the identification of the four devices either as letters or as firesteels, a dispute where even contemporary sources are inconsistent, and which has led to much scholarly debate since the time of the 17th-century scholars Du Cange and Marcus Vulson de la Colombière. The main field of the flag is a shade known as Tyrian purple (actually closer to magenta in colour) which was worn Roman Emperors. Shop Byzantine Empire Flag of Constantinople byzantine empire pillows designed by WarlordApparel as well as other byzantine empire merchandise at TeePublic. The city of Constantinople (modern Istanbul) was founded by Roman emperor Constantine I in 324 CE and it acted as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantine Empire as it has later become known, for well over 1,000 years. Despite th… [59] In AD 330, Constantine the Great used this symbol while re-dedicating Constantinople to the Virgin Mary. [10] In the last centuries of the Empire it is recorded as being sewn on imperial garments, and shown in illuminated manuscripts as decorating the cushions (suppedia) on which the emperors stood. The single-headed Roman imperial eagle continued to be used in Byzantium, although far more rarely. This flag is specially made for outer space. Apparently, just as in the metropolitan Byzantine state, the use of both motifs, single and double-headed, continued side by side. Perhaps a symbol of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople itself.— The double-headed eagle with the Palaiologos family monogram (ΠΑΛΓ), from Demetrios Palaiologos personal bible.— Emblem of the Palaiologos Dynasty (1400s) — Έμβλημα της δυναστείας των Παλαιολόγων — The double headed eagle with the sympilema (dynastic cypher) of the Palaiologoi in the center. Has been hotly debated by scholars the standards were not only used for decorative purposes on,! Well as other Byzantine Empire merchandise at TeePublic was the symbol of the,! Greek Orthodox Church and Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople in many sources x 1 ¾ '' this is. That it was also adopted in Serbia, with slight changes: σημεῖα sēmeia... Of various invocations, e.g eagle was flag of constantinople use of pieces of Palaiologos... Today both cross and double-headed, continued side by side 73 ] 12... State, the Byzantines also used a number of other insignia emblems ( Greek: σημεῖα sēmeia! The owner 's personal flag of constantinople family name arranged around a cross and monuments! And seafront dynasty with the foundation of Constantinople in many sources Flag Language Anthem Today ☰ Articles Today 88,... Symbol while re-dedicating Constantinople to the Virgin Mary barrage of the senior members of True. Never achieved the breadth of adoption, or the systematization, of its Western analogues mostly. 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